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Please note that zkApp programmability is not yet available on Mina Mainnet, but zkApps can now be deployed to Berkeley Testnet.

zkApps Overview

Terminal screenshot of Mina’s zkApp CLI command-line interface.

What are zkApps?

zkApps ("zero-knowledge apps") are Mina Protocol’s smart contracts powered by zero-knowledge proofs, specifically using zk-SNARKs.

zkApps use an off-chain execution and mostly off-chain state model. This allows for private computation and state that can be either private or public.

zkApps can perform arbitrarily-complex computations off chain while incurring only a flat fee to send the resulting zero-knowledge proof to the chain for verification of this computation, as opposed to other blockchains that run computations on chain and use a variable gas-fee based model.

Mina zkApp zero knowledge app architecture diagram

You can learn more on the How zkApps Work page.


zkApps are written in TypeScript.

TypeScript provides an easy, familiar language (JavaScript), but with type safety, making it easy to get started writing zkApps. If you're new to using TypeScript, check out this helpful 12-min introductory video.

See How to Write a zkApp page to learn more.


Deploy a zkApp in 5-steps, to see how easy it is to get started:

  1. npm install -g zkapp-cli to make the zk command available on your system

  2. zk project <name>

  3. cd <name>

  4. zk config

    Enter the details below when prompted:

    • Name: berkeley (can be anything)
    • URL:
    • Fee: 0.1

    When finished, hold command (Mac) or control (Windows & Linux) and click the URL shown in your terminal to request Testnet MINA on your address from Then wait ~3 minutes for the next block so you have enough Testnet MINA to send your deploy transaction.

  5. zk deploy berkeley

The project you just created contains an example smart contract named Add.ts that stores a number as on-chain state and adds 2 to it whenever a transaction is received by the zkApp account.

You just deployed a zkApp!

Next, go further with Tutorial 1: Hello World.

Examples of zkApps

Play around with a few example zkApps to see what’s possible:

Example zkApp zero knowledge applications.
zkApps are a great fit for applications that require proof that you have a secret without revealing it to anyone.

Learn more

To learn more about developing zkApps, read how zkApps work, how to write a zkApp, and zkApps for Ethereum Developers.

Try the zkApps tutorials to learn by doing!

Get help

Join the #zkapps-developers channel on Mina Protocol Discord. Participate and ask questions in zkApps Developers Office Hours.