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zkApps Overview

Terminal screenshot of zkApp CLI command line interface.


To protect end users and ensure your zkApps are secure, consider the information at Security and zkApps while architecting your solution and consider a third-party security audit before deploying to Mina mainnet.


The maximum number of zkApp transactions per block is currently capped at 24. This restriction will be gradually lifted after the Mainnet upgrade.

What are zkApps?

zkApps (zero knowledge apps) are Mina Protocol smart contracts powered by zero knowledge proofs, specifically using zk-SNARKs.

zkApps use an off-chain execution and mostly off-chain state model. This architecture allows for private computation and state that can be either private or public.

zkApps can perform arbitrarily-complex computations off-chain while incurring only a flat fee to send the resulting zero knowledge proof to the chain for verification of this computation. This cost saving benefit is in contrast to other blockchains that run computations on-chain and use a variable gas-fee based model.

Mina zkApp zero knowledge app architecture diagram

To learn more, see How zkApps Work.


zkApps are written in TypeScript.

TypeScript provides an easy, familiar language (JavaScript), but with type safety, making it easy to get started writing zkApps. If you're new to using TypeScript, check out this helpful 12-min introductory video TypeScript - The Basics.

Learn more

To learn more about developing zkApps, see how zkApps work, how to write a zkApp and zkApps for Ethereum Developers.

Try the zkApps tutorials to learn by doing!

Get help and join the community

Join the #zkapps-developers channel on Mina Protocol Discord.